Global warming cause effect

Climate change is a depressing topic, but it provides us with a rich source of cause effect language that we can borrow and use in our IELTS speaking and writing.

Some world leaders continue to deny that human activity is to blame for global warming, but the following text argues that humans are in fact largely responsible.

The text features some quite sophisticated cause effect signals. Try the gapfill and be sure to review alternative answers mentioned in the answer key (available after submitting answers).


Enter the following items into the gaps, then click 'Check your answers!'
responsible for, blamed for, caused, led to, resulted in, attributed to, attributable to, blamed on, held responsible for

Earth’s historic climate changes have included ice ages, warming periods and other fluctuations in climate over many centuries. Some of these historical changes can be (1) changes in the amount of solar radiation hitting the planet. A drop in solar activity, for example, is believed to have (2) the “Little Ice Age,” a period of unusually colder climate that lasted from about A.D. 1650 to 1850, according to NASA. However, there is no evidence that any increase in solar radiation could be (3) the steady increase in global temperatures that scientists are now recording, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

In other words, natural causes cannot be (4) global warming. “There is no scientific debate on this point,” NOAA says.

Indeed, virtually every credible source of scientific research from around the world indicates that human causes, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and the subsequent increase in atmospheric CO2 levels, are (5) global warming.

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