Hours of rush hour!

Many vehicles produce smoke in the street, especially in rush hours.

It’s true that in many cities, Indonesian flag including Indonesian cities, traffic is heavy early in the morning and late in the afternoon.

Admittedly rush hour can last for more than one hour at a time – in Jakarta it can take 3 hours to get to work and another 3 to get home! However, rush hour is always singular, even if it lasts for 3 hours. Rush hour also begins and ends at predictable times, and so if you say rush hour people know you’re talking about a certain period of time in the morning and a certain period of time in the afternoon:

Many vehicles produce smoke in the street, especially at rush hour. (Maybe 7-9am and 4-6pm, depending on the city!)

There is also some collocation you might want to think about:

  • At rush hour, everybody is on the road!
  • Rush hour traffic is very heavy!
  • It’s best to stay off the road during rush hour!

And if you do find yourself stuck in rush hour traffic, open up @guruEAP and turn rush hour into study hour!

Due to bad grammar!

This problem occurs due to people throw waste into the irrigation system.

Ok well it’s nice to use an alternative to because, but a change of cause effect signal can often mean a change of grammar.

Because

The grammar for because is familiar to most people:

Prices increased because demand increased.

In this structure, Prices increased is an independent clause (= it can stand alone as a sentence), and demand increased is also an independent clause.

We could also think of this structure as:

because + cause sentence

Due to

The grammar for due to is slightly different:

Prices increased due to an increase in demand.

In this case Prices increased is an independent clause, while an increase in demand is a noun (or noun phrase).

Again, this structure could also be thought of as:

due to + cause noun

Because of

Indonesian flag A common error is to treat because of in the same way as because. For example it is incorrect to say:

Prices increased because of demand increased.

Because of follows the same structure as due to:

Prices increased because of an increase in demand.

Review

So, let’s review these three cause effect signals:

  • Prices increased because demand increased. (because + cause sentence)
  • Prices increased because of an increase in demand. (because of + cause noun)
  • Prices increased due to an increase in demand. (due to + cause noun)

And if we apply these to our opening example then we get:

  • This problem occurs because people throw waste into the irrigation system.
  • This problem occurs because of the irresponsible behaviour of people who throw waste into the irrigation system.
  • This problem occurs due to the irresponsible behaviour of people who throw waste into the irrigation system.

Using a combination of these in your IELTS speaking and writing will help to increase your scores in all criteria.

To be or to do? Gapfill!

The behaviours of ‘western’ and Indonesian businessmen eloquently discussed by George B. Whitfield, III.

  • What advice would you give to foreign businessmen in Indonesia?!
  • Is there a right and a wrong way for them to behave?
  • Have you ever witnessed any ‘wrong’ behaviour? Comments below!

Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the box. Then click ‘Check your answers!’ for feedback. (There are more words and phrases in the list than there are gaps!)

If you agree or disagree with any of the claims made by the writer, add a comment and let’s discuss! Continue reading

Why do we hate grammar? Heading matching!

There has been much debate about how grammar should be taught and what age is the best age to study it. Before reading the text, consider these questions:

  • Did you study grammar in school, and if so, did you enjoy it?
  • How old were you when you first studied grammar?
  • Do you think that was a good age to start?
  • Is it better to study grammar separately from reading or just acquire it through listening and reading?

Now read the text and select suitable headings for each paragraph. Click ‘check your headings’ for feedback! If there are any ideas in the text that you agree or disagree with, add a comment and let’s discuss! Continue reading

IELTS Listening – credit card numbers

(For more IELTS Listening Section 1 spelling practice, try these names and postcodes!)

Credit card numbers come in a predictable format – four groups of four digits, for example:

4567 5678 6789 7890

Zero‘ can also be read ‘oh‘, and sequences of the same digit can be read as ‘double‘, ‘triple‘, etc.

See if you can ‘spell’ these credit card numbers: Continue reading

Reconstructing work through automation

  1. Think about – or better still, chat to a friend – about the nature of work.
  2. What is work? Why do we work?
  3. If humans are replaced by machines in the workplace, what are we going to do with all our free time?
  4. Watch and listen to the video. Then attempt to reconstruct the text using the app below.

Continue reading