Compensating for ‘compensate’

The revenues resulting from the tax amnesty could compensate the temporary loss of revenues deriving from the transition.

Compensate‘ offers three possibilities:

  1. compensate someone (a person who is a victim because of an unfortunate circumstance beyond their control)
  2. compensate for something (an unfortunate situation that was beyond someone’s control)
  3. compensate someone for something

The use of compensate in the opening example implies that a ‘loss’ is a person – “..compensate the temporary loss of revenues..”! This is clearly impossible. However we can easily correct the sentence:

  • The revenues resulting from the tax amnesty could compensate for the temporary loss of revenues deriving from the transition.

Or, alternatively:

  • The revenues resulting from the tax amnesty could compensate people for the temporary loss of revenues deriving from the transition.

You also need to be careful when using the noun compensation:

  1. Something (possibly money) is compensation for something else (possibly an action that caused the loss of money)
  2. Someone seeks/receives compensation for something (a person seeks or receives, possibly money, in return for money lost through no fault of their own)

Finally, many of the examples at forbetterenglish.com show ‘compensate‘ used in passive voice.

Compensation often comes in the form of money, but if you have experience of other kinds of compensation, please comment below!

When ‘enough’ is too much

Owners of LCGC cars spend additional money on car tax which is expensive enough for middle income families.

‘Enough’, ‘not enough’, and ‘too’ are problematic for Indonesians since their equivalents in Bahasa Indonesia (cukup, tidak cukup, terlalu) are not quite equivalent!

In English these words are used to evaluate situations that have either positive or negative outcomes.

Let’s look first at a negative outcome:

If you are female and wish to work as a flight attendant with Garuda, then you are required to be at least 163cm tall. If you are less than 163cm tall, then you are not enough for the job. What a pity – you are too short!

And now a positive outcome:

You are female, 164cm tall. You are tall enough to be a flight attendant with Garuda. You attend interview and they offer you the job, hoorah!

Now let’s review the positives:

  • ‘enough’ – positive
  • ‘not enough’ – negative
  • ‘too’ – negative


If I say that “car tax is expensive enough for middle income families” then I’m making a positive evaluation about a situation that is clearly negative!

The problem is that in Indonesian, ‘enough’ can behave rather like ‘very’ to intensify an adjective. In our example, ‘very’ would create a more negative evaluation of the situation, and I’m sure this is what the writer is trying to achieve:

🙂 Owners of LCGC cars spend additional money on car tax which is very expensive for middle income families.

When an Indonesian woman remarks that you are ‘handsome enough’ (cukup ganteng), they believe they are paying you a compliment. If you speak Bahasa Indonesia, then you will take this as a compliment. However, a man who does not speak Indonesian will appear confused, because ‘handsome enough’ literally means that he meets some minimum requirement for handsomeness. It’s not a negative evaluation, but it’s not particularly flattering either!

Indonesian readers

Indonesians sometimes use ‘too’ (terlalu) for positive evaluation. If you can think of a sentence using ‘terlalu’, please add it in a comment below.


Many thanks to Desy and Ratih for agreeing to be photographed and for filling me in on the ‘rules’!

Trends can make you ill

Australians who disagreed or remained neutral had an upward trend during the period.

I mentioned in a previous post that ‘trend’ is a dangerous word and perhaps best avoided because:

  1. it is usually redundant
  2. it carries with it unusual collocation that does not translate easily from other languages

The wrong collocation can cause meaning to change. In the example above, ‘upward trend‘ sounds like some kind of illness, which is something that we ‘have’, for example “I had a cold last week.” We might imagine the following conversation:

You: Sorry I missed our appointment yesterday. I had an upward trend.
Your friend: Sorry to hear that. I hope you’re feeling better!

trend

Once again, it’s possible, and usually preferable to describe a trend without using the word ‘trend‘. Avoid it!

Nominalisation yin and ‘yang’

In a previous post I showed how you can avoid relative clauses when you’re post-modifying nouns. This is especially useful in IELTS Task 1 writing where you have to modify a statistics word (number, amount, etc.) to include information from the axes of a graph, or from the labels attached to a chart, or from the column and row headings of a table.

Indonesian flag Here I want to appeal to Indonesian students to think again before translating ‘yang‘ when post-modifying nouns. Let’s compare a few sentences written by Indonesian students with their likely equivalents written by native English speakers:

Modified noun picture
Student sentence with error The picture that on the wall is from Australia.
Student sentence without error The picture that is on the wall is from Australia.
Native speaker The picture on the wall is from Australia.
Strategy used preposition phrase to post-modify the noun
Modified noun person
Student sentence with error The person who teach us is PG.
Student sentence without error The person who is teaching us is PG.
Native speaker The person teaching us is PG.
Strategy used ___ing to to post-modify the noun
Modified noun department store
Student sentence with error The department store that located in Bridge Street is SOGO.
Student sentence without error The department store that is located in Bridge Street is SOGO.
Native speaker The department store located in Bridge Street is SOGO.
Strategy used V3 to post-modify the noun

In these examples I used three very useful strategies to post-modify nouns:

  1. preposition phrases
  2. ___ing
  3. V3

Notice that when you avoid the relative pronoun ‘that’ (Indonesian flag YANG!), then you also avoid a common error made by Indonesian students – not adding the verb ‘to be’ to the relative clause.

Try using these strategies instead of relative clauses and see how it increases your score for vocabulary in IELTS writing and speaking!

Donald Tram

Indonesian flag ‘Trump’ is a little bit tricky for Indonesians for two reasons:

  1. It contains the phoneme /ʌ/, which is extremely rare in Bahasa Indonesia.
  2. It ends with a ‘consonant cluster’ (/mp/) – also rare in Bahasa Indonesia.

Indonesians will use sounds that are close enough for the sake of communication, and when they say ‘Donald Tram’, we know they mean ‘Donald Trump’. But if you’re taking IELTS you can easily score points for pronunciation by producing the correct sounds:

  • /trʌmp/

The phoneme /ʌ/ is very common in spoken English: up, under, mother, thorough, etc.

Finding spoken examples of ‘Trump‘ should be easy – just switch on CNN! (And remember to switch on your ears, too!)

BTW in British English, ‘trump’ is a slang word for ‘fart’! 🙂

A many-headed doctor?!

I am a doctor. My first sister is a doctor. My second sister is a doctor. And my third sister is a doctor. My father wanted us to become a doctor.

For a second, this is what your reader imagines:

doctor

You need:

  • I am a doctor. My first sister is a doctor. My second sister is a doctor. And my third sister is a doctor. My father wanted us to become doctors.

doctors female

Big cows because big horse

Indonesian flag In Bahasa Indonesia words are pronounced the way they are spelled. This often leads to some humorous mispronunciations when Indonesians apply the same rule to English.

It’s a good idea to try and overcome this problem, especially in words and phrases commonly used in IELTS Speaking. One such word is ‘because‘.

If we say ‘because‘ as it is spelled, then it sounds like:

  • big cows

However, when a native speaker says ‘because‘, it sounds very much like:

  • big horse

So, next time you want to say ‘because‘, say ‘big horse‘.

In(the) first place

In the first place is over-grazing, which caused 35% of land degradation.

Not a terrible error – we know what you mean! But still, it’s important to understand the distinction between ‘in first place’ and ‘in the first place’.

In IELTS Task 1 writing we often find ourselves ranking items as follows:

  • In first place is over-grazing, which caused 35% of land degradation. Meanwhile in second place, 20% of land degradation was caused by deforestation.

But what if you’re listing rather than ranking? Let’s say, for example, that you’re listing supports for an argument. In this case you need ‘in the first place’, ‘in the second place’, etc.:

  • Mr Jones cannot be the one who stole your car. In the first place he was in a different city when the car was stolen, and secondly he is blind!

In this case ‘in the first place‘ means ‘as the first consideration‘. It’s often used to introduce reasons that should be obvious but may need to be emphasised, as in the above example. Notice that it is unusual to continue ‘in the second place‘, ‘in the third place‘, etc. Better to switch to ‘secondly‘, ‘thirdly‘, and so on.

To sum up..

  • In first place..’ is useful in Task 1 writing (for ranking)
  • In the first place..’ is useful in Task 2 writing (for emphasising reasons)

TIP! If you’re doing this in IELTS Speaking, it can sometimes help you to structure an argument if you count off items using your fingers, perhaps under the table!

firstsecondthird


PS. See also my earlier post dealing with ‘in second place’ instead of ‘second winner’ (which does NOT mean ‘in second place’!).

The widespread misuse of ‘widespread’

The widespread of this crime can be reduced by imposing stricter penalties.

Widespread’ is an adjective, not a noun. Nouns used in this context might include  ‘incidence’, or indeed ‘spread’. These we might classify as ‘statistics nouns’, which are particularly useful in IELTS Task 1 writing.

Widespread’ as complement:

  • This crime is widespread. However, its spread can be reduced by imposing stricter penalties.

Widespread’ as noun modifier:

  • Widespread criminality can be reduced by imposing stricter penalties.

And if you’re interested in ‘spreading‘ and need a laugh, check out ‘manspreading‘!

Paying (for) basic needs

In Australia I will need a lot of money to pay my basic needs.

Indonesian flag This is obviously a translation problem.

  • If I pay the shopkeeper, I give money to the shopkeeper.
  • If I pay for the bananas, I give money to the shopkeeper.
  • If I pay the shopkeeper for the bananas, I give money to the shopkeeper.
  • If I pay the bananas, I give money to the bananas!

Indonesian has different word forms to communicate different meanings – bayar, bayar kepada, bayari, and bayarkan. English, on the other hand, only has ‘pay’ and ‘pay for’:

  1. Pay the man. (Indonesian flag bayar kepada)
  2. Pay for the bananas. (Indonesian flag bayar)
  3. Pay for my coffee, would you? (Indonesian flag bayari)
  4. When you’re in town could you pay my electricity bill for me? Here’s the money. (Indonesian flag bayarkan)

In the first picture (below), a man is paying a woman for some vegetables:

pay for

In the next illustration, a man is paying some fruit and vegetables. He’s giving money to the fruit and vegetables:

pay