The word ‘trend
‘ is only used once, and even then it is used together with ‘downward
‘! See this post
for further discussion of ‘trend
Although is used to contrast two trends at the same time. This is a good thing to do, if you can, in your IELTS Task 1 overview.
Indonesians notice the contrasted items are separated with a comma without ‘but’
- Although female-dominated industries have suffered fewer job losses from globalisation and technological change, they also pay less.
Referencing and substitution
One way to avoid repetition in your writing is to refer to nouns using referencing words as substitutes (it, they, this, those, etc). using these will improve your score for coherence and cohesion (CC). Examples here include:
- This form of segregation.. (= men and women pursue different lines of work)
- ..those that have long employed women.. (those = ‘the fastest growing industries in America)
- This does not mean.. (This = slow growth of sectors dominated by men)
- ..they also pay less. (they = slow growth of sectors dominated by men)
- ..the figure (= % of American doctors and lawyers who are women)
- ..this process takes time (= changing male and female roles in the workplace)
- At this rate.. (= the rate at which full gender equality is to be achieved)
Notice that the pronoun ‘it’ is not used at all as a substitute! Read this post
to find out why.
Vocabulary (Lexical Resource)
In IELTS terms there is some high-band vocabulary and interesting collocation:
- pursue (v) + lines of work (n)
- segregation (n) – in this case male / female
- better off (adj) – comparative form of well-off (wealthy)
- capture (v) + jobs (n)
- mere (adj) – to emphasise a low figure
- gender (adj) + parity (n) – sophisticated synonym for gender equality
- the field – the work field (Make sure you establish a context before reducing a phrase like this!)
Present simple is used for situations that are true all the time:
- Men and women often pursue different lines of work.
Present perfect is used to talk about trends that began in the past and are still happening now:
- ..many sectors…have grown much more slowly..
Will is used for prediction:
- ..the field will not achieve gender parity for another 200 years.
When a percentage is mentioned for the first time it is always followed by of + the whole
. If you’re not sure what is meant by the whole
, I suggest you read this
- In the 1960s, less than 10% of American doctors and lawyers were women.
- Today over 60% of chefs and cooks are men.
- ..a mere 10% of all nursing jobs.
The writer uses a participle clause to add information about a trend. In IELTS Task 1 this structure – comma + __ing
– is often used to present the result(s) of a trend. For more information, see this post
- Today, women graduate from university at higher rates than men, putting them in a stronger position for many well-paid professional jobs that were once male-dominated.