Physical shops are more convenient than online stores. Firstly, in physical shops customers are able to touch goods and try on clothes. Secondly, shopping in physical shops can be a social activity.
There is a category of physical store aptly named ‘convenience stores‘. Many countries have 7 Elevens. In Indonesia we have Indomaret, Alfamart and Circle K.
Indonesians might call a shop that sells everything at a low price ‘convenient‘. However, the prices in convenience stores like Circle K can be quite a lot higher than average. These shops inflate prices precisely so that they can offer ‘conveniences‘:
they are numerous, especially in cities
they have ample parking if they are situated on a road
they can even be found inside large shopping centres
they stock items that most people need on a daily basis
they provide fast and efficient service
These are all features that native English speakers would consider ‘convenient‘. In English something is ‘convenient‘ when it saves you time and effort. Being able to touch goods is not a matter of ‘convenience‘. It may be practical, but it is not what most people would call ‘convenient‘, and neither is meeting your friends when you go to physical stores.
Bakso was chosen by 60% of students, Martabak by 20%, Siomay by 15%, and only 5% chose Other.
OK the problem here is that ‘other‘ is rarely used as a noun. Generally it is used as a noun modifier: “other people“, “other things“, etc. In the above example, what is the noun that is being modified by ‘other’? Well, all of the items in the chart belong to a class, or group, and the name of that group is usually given as a label on the chart. In any case we know that Bakso, Martabak, and Siomay are all different kinds of Asian fast food, so we can write:
Bakso was chosen by 60% of students, Martabak by 20%, Siomay by 15%, and only 5% chose other kinds of Asian fast food.
‘Other‘ is used as a noun in sociology, psychology and anthropology to identify and possibly explain ‘something different from us‘, either as individuals or as a society. In these contexts there is a related concept: ‘otherness‘.
My friend Bill politics. He’s especially interested in problems that ethnic minorities. You know – immigration, work permits, etc. Although he tries not to himself personally, he inevitably forms quite close relationship with people like refugees, many of whom ethnic conflict in their home countries.
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My friend, Bill, is involved in politics. He’s especially interested in problems that involve ethnic minorities. You know – immigration, work permits, etc. Although he tries not to involve himself personally, he inevitably forms quite close relationship with people like refugees, many of whom have been involved ethnic conflict in their home countries.
to be + adjective + noun
is involved in - is + involved in + politics
have been involved - involved in + ethnic conflict
The table shows the percentage ofmoneythat allocated by peoplein different countriesfor different reasons in 2002.
Here an Indonesian student has made a noun phrase based on ‘yang di alokasikan‘. A grammar error has affected her IELTS score, but this could have been avoided using more sophisticated – and easy-to-learn – vocabulary.
The table shows the percentage ofmoneythat was allocated by peoplein different countriesfor different reasons in 2002.
Here I added ‘to be‘ before the V3 to produce a correct passive. However, a native speaker would probably choose more sophisticated vocabulary:
The table shows the percentage ofmoney allocated by peoplein different countriesfor different reasons in 2002.
Here, instead of the ugly passive structure, which Indonesians always get wrong, I made a nominal group that contains the following elements all joined together:
of money (preposition phrase)
allocated by people (V3 phrase)
in different countries (preposition phrase)
for different reasons (preposition phrase)
in 2012 (preposition phrase)
Other elements are possible in nominal groups, but these are common. I will come back to nominal groups in future posts (for example here) as problems experienced by my current class arise.
Note that there is no ‘that’ in the V3 phrase (Indonesian ‘yang’). And BTW ‘V3 phrase’ is not its official name, but it’s much easier to remember than the official name (which I will keep secret for now..).
Americans rose steadily, while Indonesians fell dramatically.
Well, maybe. Something like this?
With a sentence like the one above you are unlikely to communicate anything meaningful about a graph, table or chart. If there was a rise or a fall, then you need to state precisely what it was that rose and what it was that fell – What is the subject?
The divorce rate in Americarose steadily, while the divorce rate in Indonesiafell dramatically.
Here there are 2 subjects:
the divorce rate in America
the divorce rate in Indonesia
Some of you will complain about the repetition in this sentence (‘the divorce rate‘). However, it’s better to repeat words and phrases and communicate something meaningful than to avoid repetition and communicate nothing.
Actually in this example repetition can be avoided:
The divorce rate in America rose steadily, while thatin Indonesiafell dramatically.
* Many thanks to Diro, Nando and Ari for the ‘falling Indonesians’ photo – You guys rock! 🙂