The government has just removed fuel subsidies. It means that the price of basic goods will surely go up.
It’s sometimes useful to think of a sentence as having a theme (in this case ‘The government’) and a rheme (‘has just removed fuel subsidies’).
When you want to refer back to the theme, use a pronoun:
- The government has just removed fuel subsidies. They felt that the fuel subsidies were not economically sustainable.
When you want to refer back to the rheme, use ‘this’ or ‘these’:
- The government has just removed fuel subsidies. This means that the price of basic goods will surely go up.
Choosing the right referencing word (‘it’ or ‘this’) will make your writing more coherent (easier to understand). If you are preparing for IELTS, the right choice of referencing word will give you a higher score for coherence and cohesion (see IELTS public band descriptors).
The population of Japan is lower than Thailand.
Here is an example of not ‘comparing like with like’.
In the noun phrase ‘the population of Japan’, ‘population’ is the main noun. ‘Population’, which is a mass of people, is said to be lower than ‘Thailand’, a land mass. This leaves the reader with an image of Thailand hovering up in the air, with the Japanese population some physical distance below it!
A mass of people is not like a land mass. In order to make sure that you’re ‘comparing like with like’, use a parallel structure:
- The population of Japan is lower than the population of Thailand.
This may result in some repetition – ‘the population of’ is used twice. But don’t worry about repetition. At least you’re ‘comparing like with like’.
Repetition can be avoided in this kind of comparative structure by substituting ‘that’ for part of the phrase that you’re trying not to repeat:
- The population of Japan is lower than that of Thailand.
In this example, that replaces the population, but it can be used to replace any noun or noun phrase.
These days children see far too much violence on TV and this can affect to their emotional development.
X affects Y (without ‘to’) / Y is affected by X:
- These days children see far too much violence on TV and this can affect their emotional development.
- These days children’s emotional development can be affected by violence on TV.
Before departing for Australia, students must prepare theirselves in order to avoid culture shock.
..selves. More than one ‘self’. OK, no complaints about that.
..theirselves. Now you’re being inconsistent with your object pronouns.
You guys have no problem producing the following:
- He loves her.
- She loves him.
- Their parents love them.
And you would never write:
- Their parents love their.
- Look at their!
- They say they love each other and I believe their.
So why the sudden switch to possessive ‘their’?! Please use the object pronoun (him, her, them) + ‘self/selves’:
- Before departing for Australia, students must prepare themselves in order to avoid culture shock.
And you might think about some collocation (prepare + s.o./s.th. + for + s.th.):
- Before departing for Australia, students must prepare themselves for culture shock.
Finally, we can assume that the students must prepare themselves and not other people, so strictly speaking themselves is redundant:
- Before departing for Australia, students must prepare for culture shock.
There is a kind of exception to the above rule. Does anybody know what it is? Comments below please!
The government does not concern about the crime rate in cities.
Here concern is used in the form of a verb, but the grammar is not right. It would have been better to use to be along with the adjective form of concern: concerned.
On the one hand you can be concerned about nothing in particular:
- The government is not concerned.
And on the other hand you can (not) to be concerned about a particular thing:
- The government is not concerned about the crime rate in cities.
If something is the object of concern, then remember to use the preposition: concerned about (something).
It’s also possible to say the same thing using concern as a noun, where concern often collocates with another word (in this case, ’cause’):
- The government does not consider the crime rate in cities to be a cause for concern.
And it’s also possible to use the verb form (notice the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ in the construction of the negative!):
- The crime rate in cities does not concern the government.
So which one to use? Adjective? Noun? Verb? Well if you can remember to put __ed onto concern and add about, it’s probably best to use the adjective form!
Tell us about some of the things you’re concerned about. Use the comments box below this post.
There will be many disadvantages for human if animal testing is stopped.
If we check in a dictionary, we see that human can be an adjective and it can be a noun. In this example human is used as a noun.
If we check again in the dictionary, we see that human is a countable noun. In grammar, we know that if we’re talking about all examples of a thing, everywhere, and the thing is countable, then we must add an ‘s’ to the noun:
- There will be many disadvantages for humans if animal testing is stopped.
Mistakes are often made when human is used as a noun modifier, in which case the ‘s’ might be added to the main noun:
- There will be many disadvantages for human beings if animal testing is stopped.
Can you identify examples of human used as a noun, and human used as a noun modifier? Add them to the comments below :).
At the weekend I like to spend my time to cook.
There are two problems here. First of all you are unlikely to spend anybody else’s time other than your own, so ‘my’ is redundant. Secondly, ‘spend time’ is much more commonly followed by _ing (gerund):
- At the weekend I like to spend time cooking.
You can also use a preposition phrase to show where you spend time:
- At the weekend I like to spend time in the kitchen.
And you can even combine these two examples:
- At the weekend I like to spend time in the kitchen cooking.
Now spend some time practicing ‘spend time’!
Excuse me, why the answer to number 10 is ‘A’?
Excuse me, why is this grammatically incorrect? Here are some correct sentences:
The answer to number 10 is ‘A’.
The answer to number 10 is not ‘A’.
Is the answer to number 10 ‘A’?
Why is the answer to number 10 ‘A’?
Why isn’t the answer to number 10 ‘B’?
How about I show you study the correct sentences and then explain the rule in your own words in the comments below?
Domestic work is made easier with the use of dishwasher, vacuum cleaner, and washing machine.
It doesn’t matter which dishwasher, which vacuum cleaner, or which washing machine, they all make domestic work easier, or at least so this claim seems to suggest.
- Domestic work is made easier with the use of dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines.
If your claim applies to all of them everywhere, add an ‘s’ to your noun!
These problems have become more serious because of the government have failed to end corruption.
Ok, so there’s a problem here because of ‘because of’!
It should read:
- These problems have become more serious because the government have failed to end corruption.
Just follow this rule:
- because + cause sentence
- because of + cause noun
If you really want to use because of then you might write:
- These problems have become more serious because of the government’s failure to end corruption.