Success failure effort belief

These words – success, failure, effort, belief – take different forms and collocate strongly with other words.

Indonesian flag They’re also problematic for Indonesian scholars. Success has become sukses, effort is translated from upaya, and belief is subject to the same word form error as life (see note below).

Use a dictionary to complete the following text with suitable forms of these words.

Instructions

Enter the following items into the gaps, then click 'Check your answers!'
succeed, failed, successful, success, failure, successfully, fail, believe, fails, belief, effort


Bill is a (1) olympic runner. He has won several gold medals and has achieved (2) in many other competitions. Ever since he was a child, he has always been a (3) . Last year he (4) broke several world records. What does he think are the factors influencing his (5) ? Clean living, plenty of training, and of course the desire to (6) !

Budi is a (7) as a runner. He (8) every time he enters a race. Ever since he began running he has been a (9) . As a child he (10) . As a teenager he (11) , and now as a middle age man he continues to (12) . He believes his constant (13) to win may be related to his fondness for nightclubs and the fact that he eats nothing but bakso (with white rice, of course).

It seems that in order to (14) , a runner needs to make an (15) to maintain the correct lifestyle and to maintain a (16) in winning. It is only when we (17) we will win that we can avoid (18) and achieve (19) .


 
Indonesian flag Note to Indonesian scholars

  • In English effort is a noun (not a verb). So what is a good translation for mengupaya untuk..?
  • Word form errors made with belief and believe are the same as errors made with life and live.

Prevent Avoid Protect

Indonesia should prevent its resources from the threat of bio-piracy.

Meaning can become distorted or even lost when you translate directly. In this case we have a direct translation of the Indonesian mencegah, which – in many situations – does indeed translate as prevent.

As usual, I strongly advise Indonesian scholars to forget about the grammar here and to think in terms of vocabulary, or lexis. The following lexical options are NOT possible in English:

  1. prevent + n + from + n (not  __ing)
  2. avoid + n + from + n

Next we have the  ‘good‘ structures. If you like you can click on prevent, protect, and avoid to see examples of these structures.

  1. prevent + n
  2. prevent + n + from + __ing
  3. protect + n
  4. protect + n + from + n
  5. avoid + n

So which structure is best for the bio-piracy example? Well, all are possible!

  1. Indonesia should prevent bio-piracy.
  2. Indonesia should prevent bio-piracy from occurring.
  3. Indonesia should protect its bio-diversity.
  4. Indonesia should protect itself from bio-piracy.
  5. Indonesia should avoid bio-piracy.

See also this post for further analysis of avoid.

Bring take carry

You can also use Gojek if you don’t bring much luggage.

Indonesian flag This is another common Indonesian translation that results in ugly collocation.

As a general rule, when you use take and bring then you’re usually also talking about places. But you also need to think about where you are at the time of speaking, and where the thing is that is being taken or brought.

If you say “I took my lunchbox to work and brought it home again,” then at the time of speaking:

  • You are at home.
  • Your lunchbox is at home.
  • You took it from here to there. (not bring from here to there)
  • Brought it (back) from there to here. (not take from there to here)

Let’s look again at the opening example:

  • You can also use Gojek if you don’t bring much luggage.

Here the writer uses bring but does not mention any place, and it’s difficult to imagine a specific space. The Gojek ride can begin anywhere and end anywhere.

If you use bring or take then you need to mention either a start or a finish location, or both!

  • If you have a lot of luggage then you cannot bring it home by Gojek.
    • you are at home
    • bring from there to here (home = finish location)
  • If you have a lot of luggage then you cannot take it to the airport by Gojek.
    • you are at home
    • take from here to there (home = start location)
  • If you have a lot of luggage then you cannot take it from home to the airport by Gojek.
    • you are at home
    • take from here to there (home = start location)
  • etc.

If you don’t mention start or finish locations and it is difficult to imagine one, you probably need  carry:

You can also use Gojek if you don’t carry much luggage.

Remember to be passive

As the tap handle rotated the spindle moves up inside the tap body.

Indonesian flag Bahasa Indonesia has a special construction for passives – ‘di‘ + verb: diputar. Maybe that’s why Indonesians writing in English find it easy to produce the passive form of the verb, adding ‘ed‘ to regular verbs as a substitute for their own ‘di‘. However they often forget to include ‘to be’ in the English passive structure:

  • As the tap handle is rotated the spindle moves up inside the tap body.

If you want a good score for GRA in IELTS writing, don’t forget ‘to be’ in passives. Here’s a little rhyme to aid memory:

  • to be + V3, the English form of ‘Di’, to be + V3, the English form of ‘Di’!

‘One of’ or ‘a’?

Euthanasia may be one of ways to deliver health resources fairly to people who still want to live.

Indonesian flag This is a direct translation from Bahasa Indonesia: ‘salah satu‘.

For every noun in English it is important to communicate one of three meanings:

In the opening example the writer communicated successfully. However, the sentence is gramatically incorrect. If you really must use ‘one of‘ then you need more grammar:

  • Euthanasia may be one of several ways to deliver.. (‘several’ behaves like ‘many’)
  • Euthanasia may be one of the best ways to deliver.. (‘one of’ + the + superlative adjective + plural count noun)

You can see how easy it can be to introduce grammatical error, or to choose the wrong word to follow ‘one of’! A much easier and far more common way to communicate ‘one of many’ is using the indefinite article ‘a‘ (or ‘an‘) – NOT ‘one of‘.

Want to communicate one of manyUse the indefinite article:

  • Euthanasia may be a way to deliver health resources fairly to people who still want to live.

For more examples of article use, click the articles tag.

The same with as

I experience the same problems with you.

Indonesian flag This is direct translation from Bahasa Indonesia (sama dengan). It’s not incorrect but I’m fairly certain it’s not what you mean!

Same as

In English when you want to say that things are the same, the collocation is usually same as:

  • I experience the same problems as you.

In this case you experience problem X, problem Y and problem Z, and I also experience problems X, Y and Z. We both experience the same problems, and we are sharing our problems with each other, as friends.

Same with

Same with communicates quite a different meaning:

  • I experience the same problems with you.

In this case I experience problems with somebody else – for example someone lies to me and never helps me – and I experience the same problems with you – you also lie to me and never help me!

Very often this is expressed using ‘it‘:

  • That person always lies to me and never helps me, and it’s the same with you.

Here are some examples.

Most of the time you mean same as, so think carefully next time you write same with!

Getting an accident

I drove to town this morning and got an accident.

In English you don’t ‘get‘ an accident, you ‘have‘ one. If you say you drove to town and got an accident, it sounds as though you bought an accident, perhaps from a shop that sells accidents? Depending on the type of accident, you might need a very large shopping bag!

Admittedly the context of your sentence makes meaning clear, but if you want a high score for vocabulary in IELTS writing, try to use stronger collocation:

  • I drove to town this morning and had an accident.

Searching (for) something

Now I am searching ways to make the Lombok community aware of mental health.

Ok so there’s a big difference between search and search for.

Take a look at the following photographs. In the first photo police are searching the city. They’re searching for a suspect (= they haven’t found him yet!). In the second photo they have found the suspect and a police officer is searching him. Possibly the police officer is searching the man for weapons or drugs.

Traffic Stop - Pat Down

Police searching for suspect

Traffic Stop - Pat Down

Police searching suspect

If you’re searching someone, you’ve already found him and so you don’t need to search for him any more!

Look at these examples and notice the difference between search and search for.

This one and those ones

Teachers should shift from individual learning to collaborative one.

Indonesian flag Here an Indonesian student is translating ‘yang‘ as a substitute for a noun, but running into trouble because ‘learning‘ is uncountable.

This is easy to solve by converting ‘individual learning‘ into a countable noun:

  • Teachers should shift from an individual learning style to a collaborative one.

Notice, too that the same kind of translation is possible with plural count nouns:

  • Collaborative tasks are better than individual ones.

However, this is rather informal and is used more in speaking than in writing.

When should I use ‘have to’?

I’m sorry I’m late. My wife is sick and so this morning I should take my son to school. And I’m sorry but I should leave early today to take him home.

OK so this is an Indonesian student over-translating ‘harus’ as ‘should’. Actually there are situations when we have to use ‘have to’ instead of ‘should’. Take a look at the following examples and try the exercises that follow.

As a teacher I have to [1] get up early on work days because I have to [2] be in class at 8 o’clock. I drive to work, although I should [3] probably use a motorcycle, which is faster and more convenient in Bali.

When I was a musician I didn’t have to [4] get up early. On the other hand I had to [5] be on stage most evenings at 8 o’clock. I had to [6] drive to gigs because I had to [7] carry many drums. I know what you’re thinking – I should’ve [8] chosen a smaller instrument like the violin. Yes, but then I would have had to [9] play the violin!

Discussion

  1. In which situations do/did/would I have a choice?
  2. In which situations do/did/would I NOT have a choice?

Complete the rule:

In the present:

  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when it is a good idea to do something, but we have a choice. (We probably don’t do it!)
  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when we have NO choice. (We do it, even if we don’t want to!)

In the past:

  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when it would have been a good idea to do something, but we didn’t do it, even though we had a choice.
  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when we had NO choice. (We did it, even if we didn’t want to!)

(scroll down for answers!)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion

  1. In which situations do/did/would I have a choice? [Answer: 1,2,4,5,6,7,9]
  2. In which situations do/did/would I NOT have a choice? [Answer: 3,8]

Complete the rule:

In the present:

  • we use should to talk about situations when it is a good idea to do something, but we have a choice. (We probably don’t do it!)
  • we use have to to talk about situations when we have NO choice. (We do it, even if we don’t want to!)

In the past:

  • we use should have + V3 to talk about situations when it would have been a good idea to do something, but we didn’t do it, even though we had a choice.
  • we use had to to talk about situations when we had NO choice. (We did it, even though we didn’t want to!)

When corrected, the opening example reads as follows:

🙂 I’m sorry I’m late. My wife is sick and so this morning I had to take my son to school. And I’m sorry but I have to leave early today to take him home.

Hope that helps!