No need for ‘necessity’

It is a necessity of Christian churches to address post-colonial issues in their ministerial aspects.

This was a special request from subscriber and special friend Elia who is unsure about his use of the word ‘necessity’. Like many Indonesians he is not confident when it comes to expressing subtle degrees of obligation, the Indonesian equivalents for which are often less subtle than their English counterparts. Continue reading

When should I use ‘have to’?

I’m sorry I’m late. My wife is sick and so this morning I should take my son to school. And I’m sorry but I should leave early today to take him home.

OK so this is an Indonesian student over-translating ‘harus’ as ‘should’. Actually there are situations when we have to use ‘have to’ instead of ‘should’. Take a look at the following examples and try the exercises that follow.

As a teacher I have to [1] get up early on work days because I have to [2] be in class at 8 o’clock. I drive to work, although I should [3] probably use a motorcycle, which is faster and more convenient in Bali.

When I was a musician I didn’t have to [4] get up early. On the other hand I had to [5] be on stage most evenings at 8 o’clock. I had to [6] drive to gigs because I had to [7] carry many drums. I know what you’re thinking – I should’ve [8] chosen a smaller instrument like the violin. Yes, but then I would have had to [9] play the violin!

Discussion

  1. In which situations do/did/would I have a choice?
  2. In which situations do/did/would I NOT have a choice?

Complete the rule:

In the present:

  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when it is a good idea to do something, but we have a choice. (We probably don’t do it!)
  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when we have NO choice. (We do it, even if we don’t want to!)

In the past:

  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when it would have been a good idea to do something, but we didn’t do it, even though we had a choice.
  • we use ________________ to talk about situations when we had NO choice. (We did it, even if we didn’t want to!)

(scroll down for answers!)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion

  1. In which situations do/did/would I have a choice? [Answer: 1,2,4,5,6,7,9]
  2. In which situations do/did/would I NOT have a choice? [Answer: 3,8]

Complete the rule:

In the present:

  • we use should to talk about situations when it is a good idea to do something, but we have a choice. (We probably don’t do it!)
  • we use have to to talk about situations when we have NO choice. (We do it, even if we don’t want to!)

In the past:

  • we use should have + V3 to talk about situations when it would have been a good idea to do something, but we didn’t do it, even though we had a choice.
  • we use had to to talk about situations when we had NO choice. (We did it, even though we didn’t want to!)

When corrected, the opening example reads as follows:

🙂 I’m sorry I’m late. My wife is sick and so this morning I had to take my son to school. And I’m sorry but I have to leave early today to take him home.

Hope that helps!