Babies, trends, and past perfect

This story from the BBC features some useful language for IELTS candidates. Click on the highlighted words for separate analysis. Alternatively, jump straight to the summary analyisis at the bottom!


Women in England and Wales are having 1.9 children on average, fewer than their mothers who had 2.2 offspring, according to the Office for National Statistics.

That’s a small decrease but the lowest level on record and continues the downward trend of the past few years.

The decline is in part due to a growing number of women not having children, with one-fifth now childless.

There has also been a fall in the number of teenage pregnancies.

About 6% of women have a baby before their 20th birthday, again continuing a long-term downward trend.

But “it’s not just childlessness,” said Emily Knipe of the Office for National Statistics. More and more women are having fewer babies.

The data showed about one in 10 mothers today having four or more children, compared with one in eight of their mothers’ generation.

Women are also having babies later. By their 30th birthdays, women today are likely to have had one child. Their mothers were likely to have had 1.8.

The ONS suggested this is because more women are going into higher education and are also delaying finding a partner.

Ms Knipe said: “It’s not just a biological factor of people leaving it too late. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests people are choosing not to have children.”

The data showed that the number of women having children in their teenage years, after peaking in the mid-20th Century, now matches figures for women born in the 1920s.

Imogen Stephens of Marie Stopes UK said it “shows that young people are taking better control of their fertility”.

“It is a big financial commitment to start a family and it is completely understandable that more women are choosing to complete their education, develop their careers and get on the housing ladder before having children.

“What is vital is that we support women’s choices to have children at the age that is right for them.”


Analysis

v/n collocation

  • (to) have children
  • (to) have offspring
  • ..continue (a) (upward/downward) trend
  • ..continues the downward trend of the past few years.
  • ..again continuing a long-term downward trend.

Noun form as sentence theme

  • The decline is in part due to..

Noun form of used rather than verb form

  • There has also been a fall in the number of teenage pregnancies.

Describing a trend without using the word trend

  • More and more women are having fewer babies.
  • Women are also having babies later.
  • ..more women are going into higher education and are also delaying finding a partner.
  • ..people are choosing not to have children.
  • ..more women are choosing to complete their education, develop their careers and get on the housing ladder before having children.

By + time expression

  • By their 30th birthdays, women today are likely to have had one child. Their mothers were likely to have had 1.8.

By their 30th birthdays is a future time expression for ‘women today’ (= future perfect), and a past time expression for ‘their mothers’ (= past perfect).

For more information about past perfect click the past perfect tag.

Postmodified nouns

Statistics noun postmodified with a preposition phrase, __ing, and another preposition phrase:

  • ..the number of women having children in their teenage years

Noun post-modified with V3 – without the Indonesian ‘yang’ (the English ‘that’!).

  • ..women born in the 1920s.

Indonesian flag For more information about the Indonesian ‘yang’, see this post.