In recent times, the obligation of developed nations to give aid for developing nations has been widely discussed.
This grammar item is handled differently by different languages. Let’s take a look at some examples:
- Several highly independent intelligence operations were given to him.
- Eventually they gave the house to their eldest son.
- Don’t give it to them! They’ll waste it.
- In these examples, give..to is followed by a person or group. ( kepada)
So, ‘to’ + person or people. What about ‘for’?
- Cool, huh?! My parents gave it to me for my birthday.
- I normally give a tip for good service, but this time I was disappointed.
- Here give..for is followed by a purpose. ( untuk)
Now try this practice activity. Continue reading
I would like to study abroad one more time, especially for achieving a doctoral degree.
This is an Indonesian translation for ‘untuk‘ as a way to explain purpose.
In English the answer to this kind of ‘why‘ question is nearly always ‘to + V1‘:
- I would like to study abroad one more time, especially to achieve a doctoral degree.
Questions that focus on purpose include:
- Why do you want to..?
- Why did you..?
- What did you (do that) for?
The answers will always contain ‘to + v1..’ – what is referred to as ‘the infinitive of purpose‘.
‘For + noun‘ is used to explain some kind of function:
A: What’s that machine for?
B: It’s for pounding rice. (function)
A. Oh. I see. But why use a machine?
B. Maybe to save time. (purpose)
A. Ah. Right.
Indonesians – next time you want to translate ‘untuk‘, stop and think. Are you talking about function or purpose?