There will be many disadvantages for human if animal testing is stopped.
If we check in a dictionary, we see that human can be an adjective and it can be a noun. In this example human is used as a noun.
If we check again in the dictionary, we see that human is a countable noun. In grammar, we know that if we’re talking about all examples of a thing, everywhere, and the thing is countable, then we must add an ‘s’ to the noun:
- There will be many disadvantages for humans if animal testing is stopped.
Mistakes are often made when human is used as a noun modifier, in which case the ‘s’ might be added to the main noun:
- There will be many disadvantages for human beings if animal testing is stopped.
Can you identify examples of human used as a noun, and human used as a noun modifier? Add them to the comments below :).
In my spare time I usually go out with my friends.
This is grammatically correct. However, if you’re talking about something you do regularly or habitually then present simple tense is all you need:
- In my spare time I go out with my friends.
Indonesians will feel a need to translate ‘biasanya’, but in English present simple tense already carries the meaning of usually, and so usually is redundant in a sentence like this.
Only use usually when you want to make a contrast between something you do habitually, and something that you do, or have to do, because of exceptional or unforeseen circumstances:
- In my spare time I usually go out with my friends, but today I have my IELTS interview.
Since the abolition of fuel subsidies, prices have been fluctuative.
Nice try! The IELTS examiner will understand that you are trying to make an adjective from the verb ‘fluctuate’ using ‘ive’. Normally this would be a good strategy, but there is no such word as ‘fluctuative’ and so this time you will receive a low score for vocabulary.
The safest approach is to use the verb form:
- ..prices have fluctuated.
Alternatively, you can make an adjective phrase using the noun form and featuring some collocation:
- ..prices have been subject to fluctuation.
Finally you might try some more fancy academic collocation:
- ..prices have tended to fluctuate.
Now go ahead and remove fluctuative from your list of ‘ive’ adjectives!
It is important to consider the negative effects for the sake of our young generation.
We like ‘for the sake of’, but not ‘our young generation’. It’s grammatically correct but doesn’t feel right. Therefore we probably have a collocation problem.
How about this:
- It is important to consider the negative effects for the sake of future generations.
When you think about it, future generations all start out young, and we would hope that there will be more than one future generation. In academic writing it is also better to avoid personal pronouns, even possessives (‘our’). We therefore recommend the phrase for the sake of future generations.
First of all it is necessary to consider about unemployment. Unemployment is considered as a serious problem.
This one is a quickie for Indonesians who feel a strong urge to insert ‘tentang’ after consider and ‘sebagai’ after the passive considered.
- First of all it is necessary to consider unemployment.
- Unemployment is considered (to be) a serious problem.
Next time you use consider/considered, consider not using ‘tentang’/’sebagai’!
At the weekend I like to spend my time to cook.
There are two problems here. First of all you are unlikely to spend anybody else’s time other than your own, so ‘my’ is redundant. Secondly, ‘spend time’ is much more commonly followed by _ing (gerund):
- At the weekend I like to spend time cooking.
You can also use a preposition phrase to show where you spend time:
- At the weekend I like to spend time in the kitchen.
And you can even combine these two examples:
- At the weekend I like to spend time in the kitchen cooking.
Now spend some time practicing ‘spend time’!
These problems have become more serious because of the government have failed to end corruption.
Ok, so there’s a problem here because of ‘because of’!
It should read:
- These problems have become more serious because the government have failed to end corruption.
Just follow this rule:
- because + cause sentence
- because of + cause noun
If you really want to use because of then you might write:
- These problems have become more serious because of the government’s failure to end corruption.
According to a recent census, there are 265 millions people living in Indonesia.
Yes, I know it seems right. But it isn’t. Only put an ‘s’ on million when million is the main noun in a noun phrase. Very often million is the main noun in a noun phrase when it is at the beginning of a sentence..
- Millions of people live in Indonesia, a huge archipelago in south-east Asia.
..but not always. It might appear somewhere inside a sentence:
- Indonesia spends millions of dollars every year subsidising fuel.
In the noun phrase millions of people, millions is the main noun, modified by of people. We know exactly which millions you’re talking about – not millions of bananas, for example! The same goes for millions of dollars (not millions of rupiah!).
When million is not the main noun, for example when it is modifying another noun, don’t add an ‘s’:
According to a recent census, there are 265 million people living in Indonesia.
In the noun phrase 265 million people living in Indonesia, the main noun is ‘people’. All of the other words in the phrase give us information about ‘people’ – how many, and where they live.
The same rule applies to hundred(s), thousand(s), etc.
Select words from the drop-down menus to complete the text. When you have finished, click 'Check your answers!' for feedback.
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