There will be many disadvantages for human if animal testing is stopped.
If we check in a dictionary, we see that human can be an adjective and it can be a noun. In this example human is used as a noun.
If we check again in the dictionary, we see that human is a countable noun. In grammar, we know that if we’re talking about all examples of a thing, everywhere, and the thing is countable, then we must add an ‘s’ to the noun:
There will be many disadvantages for humans if animal testing is stopped.
Mistakes are often made when human is used as a noun modifier, in which case the ‘s’ might be added to the main noun:
There will be many disadvantages for human beings if animal testing is stopped.
Since the abolition of fuel subsidies, prices have been fluctuative.
Nice try! The IELTS examiner will understand that you are trying to make an adjective from the verb ‘fluctuate’ using ‘ive’. Normally this would be a good strategy, but there is no such word as ‘fluctuative’ and so this time you will receive a low score for vocabulary.
The safest approach is to use the verb form:
..prices have fluctuated.
Alternatively, you can make an adjective phrase using the noun form and featuring some collocation:
..prices have been subject tofluctuation.
Finally you might try some more fancy academic collocation:
..prices have tended to fluctuate.
Now go ahead and remove fluctuative from your list of ‘ive’ adjectives!
It is important to consider the negative effects for the sake of our young generation.
We like ‘for the sake of’, but not ‘our young generation’. It’s grammatically correct but doesn’t feel right. Therefore we probably have a collocation problem.
How about this:
It is important to consider the negative effects for the sake of future generations.
When you think about it, future generations all start out young, and we would hope that there will be more than one future generation. In academic writing it is also better to avoid personal pronouns, even possessives (‘our’). We therefore recommend the phrase for the sake of future generations.
According to a recent census, there are 265 millions people living in Indonesia.
Yes, I know it seems right. But it isn’t. Only put an ‘s’ on million when million is the main noun in a noun phrase. Very often million is the main noun in a noun phrase when it is at the beginning of a sentence..
Millions of people live in Indonesia, a huge archipelago in south-east Asia.
..but not always. It might appear somewhere inside a sentence:
Indonesia spends millions of dollars every year subsidising fuel.
In the noun phrase millions of people, millions is the main noun, modified by of people. We know exactly which millions you’re talking about – notmillions of bananas, for example! The same goes for millions of dollars (notmillions of rupiah!).
When million is not the main noun, for example when it is modifying another noun, don’t add an ‘s’:
According to a recent census, there are 265 million people living in Indonesia.
In the noun phrase 265 million people living in Indonesia, the main noun is ‘people’. All of the other words in the phrase give us information about ‘people’ – how many, and where they live.
The same rule applies to hundred(s), thousand(s), etc.
Last year of people around the world spent 2 dollars or more buying consumer goods. Of these goods, smartphones have become a dollar industry with of manufacturers in more than 3 countries. In the future this is likely to grow to many .
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