Chaining the stages of a process

Cement production comprises 5 stages, started from mixing materials and ended with packaging.

This writer has attempted to combine three sentences in one:

  1. Cement production comprises 5 stages.
  2. Cement production starts with mixing materials.
  3. Cement production ends with packaging.
Before we continue, do you know why I chose the photo of daisies for the featured image of this post? Answers in the comments box below!

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Starting with started from

Certain steps should be followed in making a business plan, started from establishing mission objectives, undertaking a position analysis, identifying and assessing strategic options, selecting strategic options, and formulating plans.

In this sentence the first comma splits the sentence into two halves: Continue reading

Remember to be passive

As the tap handle rotated the spindle moves up inside the tap body.

Indonesian flag Bahasa Indonesia has a special construction for passives – ‘di‘ + verb: diputar. Maybe that’s why Indonesians writing in English find it easy to produce the passive form of the verb, adding ‘ed‘ to regular verbs as a substitute for their own ‘di‘. However they often forget to include ‘to be’ in the English passive structure:

  • As the tap handle is rotated the spindle moves up inside the tap body.

If you want a good score for GRA in IELTS writing, don’t forget ‘to be’ in passives. Here’s a little rhyme to aid memory:

  • to be + V3, the English form of ‘Di’, to be + V3, the English form of ‘Di’!