Academic English not only for Indonesians
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Only ‘consist of’ contains ‘of’!

The report contains of 22 integrated recommendations under four themes.

This is partly understandable. Our writer has seen consists + of, and has assumed that contain also requires the preposition of. It does not! (more…)

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Seeing clearly in IELTS Task 1

It is clearly seen that unemployment fell gradually throughout the period.

This is like a supermarket putting a sign next to some peanuts saying “This product contains peanuts.” (more…)

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Chaining the stages of a process

Cement production comprises 5 stages, started from mixing materials and ended with packaging.

This writer has attempted to combine three sentences in one: (more…)

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Adding things in process description

The contents are added with powder and then all the materials are mixed together.

Indonesian flag Indonesians – please let me know what you’re trying to translate here! (more…)

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Starting with started from

Certain steps should be followed in making a business plan, started from establishing mission objectives, undertaking a position analysis, identifying and assessing strategic options, selecting strategic options, and formulating plans.

In this sentence the first comma splits the sentence into two halves: (more…)


Before you attempt to fill the gaps, discuss the following with a partner.

  • Which FIPCAs might be appropriate in this essay?
  • If your FIPCAs differ from your partner’s reach a decision about whose FIPCAs are most appropriate?
  • What are the criteria for a good FIPCA in IELTS Task 2 Writing?
  • Is it possible to have too much choice?
  • Is ‘choice’ countable or uncountable?
  • Three words / expressions in this essay were taken from passages in today’s IELTS reading practice test (one from each passage). Can you identify them?


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Describing transformational change(s)

The farmland was transformed become residential areas.

I have written elsewhere about how Indonesian IELTS candidates often use become to talk about a constant, where in English it is only ever used to describe a change. However, although become is used to describe a change, we would not use become AND transform together. (more…)

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Unreasonable use of ‘reason’

The reasons that caused land degradation are shown in the pie chart.

One problem here is that reason is closely synonymous with cause, and so it’s as though you’re saying: (more…)

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In, at, by the end

In the end of the period the figure was almost 200.

Houston. We have a preposition problem! (more…)